The educational psychologist has an enormous task in the educational setup. He is supposed to help solve a number of problems relating to learning, student – teacher and teacher – parent relation with reference to the student. How can he help both gifted and mentally retarded children to their fullest potential? What can the school do in overcoming physical, social and cultural handicaps? Educational psychologist comes forward to answer such questions in the light of the principles and techniques relevant to the setup. To understand what factors contribute to good or had teaching, three psychologists performed experiments on teacher evaluation (Naftulk. Ware kind Donelly 1973).
Educational psychologists are concerned with all psychological aspects of the learning process. How important is motivation? I.Q. or Personality? The use of reward and punishment in learning? How can we best evaluate the student’s performance? The educational psychologists are expected to work in colleges and universities as well as on special given study. They also work in special education field. Among those who work in private industry, government, nonprofit agencies and large school systems, many are engaged in developing test materials, planning and evaluating and setting up training systems.
School Psychology is strictly an applied field as compared to educational psychology. School psychologists are supposed to work in elementary and secondary schools. Often they are engaged in teacher training to enable them to handle problem students better. They provide counseling to students of different nature, and their parents. They are found busy in standardizing the tests and interpreting difficulties arid assessing the students’ learning difficulties. School psychologists work directly with school children and their parents and teachers to help the children get most from their school years. They operate similarly to counseling psychologists focusing on the children’s school achievements, mental health and social adjustment.
Counseling psychologists give and interpret psychological tests. They are expected to
interview and observe those who contact them for help. A counseling psychologist offers practical suggestions that can be helpful in resolving the counselee’s problem in the first place. These psychologists are required in schools mote than colleges but many students at college as well as university levels need these services imperatively. Counseling psychologists usually help mild problems of social and emotional adjustment. Some of them specialize in particular areas such as marriage counseling and family life. They may also help normally adjusted people with such tasks as vocational goals. According to a recent study by Stapp and Fulcher, about half of all counseling psychologists like their colleagues in clinical psychology now work in health care settings.
Clinical psychologists specialize in diagnosis and treatment of behaviour disorders. They are, of course, involved in much more than this. They undertake investigation into the causes of behaviour disorders. Their quest as to how best they can treat the disorders is ceaseless. Here, clinical psychologists disagree frequently in etiology. Are behavioral disorders the result of unresolved conflicts and unconscious motivations as proposes Freud? Or are they learned responses which can be unlearned with training? This investigation into the causes and the whole background of the patient with the Syndrome is a colossal task which is the assignment of a clinical psychologist without any other’s collaboration. Psychoanalyst can, of course, extend partial cooperation but his treatise and available stock of information may not always be relevant.
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